The research leading to this thesis was developed over a three-year period during which I had the advice and guidance of a number of people who will be thanked below. During this time, the research was partially funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA).

Thanks to the following faculty and research advisors who have advised me, in chronological order, Haris Koutsopoulos, David Block-Schachter, John Attanucci, Fred Salvucci, and Jinhua Zhao. I’d like to thank them all for their guidance and advice. For their guidance in academic matters, intersecting two departments, and support in crises, thanks go to Chris Zegras and Jinhua Zhao.

From summers spent at the MBTA I’d like to thank Heather Hume, David Barker, Sam Hickey, Brian Kane, and other members of the stretching squad for welcoming me to their offices. I’d also like to thank fellow interns Brian Francis and Susan Balding for accompanying me on lunch and coffee breaks, as well as my fellow research assistants Katie Pincus, William Chow, Dave Maltzan, and Catherine Vanderwaart. I would additionally like to thank Anette Demchur of CTPS for answering numerous questions about their procedure for Title VI analyses.

For their invaluable input, advice, and support, Anson Stewart and Gabriel Sanchez Martinez.

Mr. Jason Gordon, whose work was a precursor to this thesis, for his mentorship, advice, last minute editing, and being the keeper of the data.

My comrades in the Transit Lab, scattering to the four corners, your camaraderie, good cheer, and support leading up to the end will be missed.

Finally my parents for their love and support from afar, and weekly check-in phone calls. Thank you very much.